Calculus or stone formation in the kidneys. Calculus is most commonly found in cattle, sheep and goats. They are formed from solids of common or unusual ingredients. They can be found in any part of the urethra.
Urinary tract infection
Vitamin A deficiency
Excess salt in the diet
Low fluid intake
Uric acid pH
Calcium phosphorus imbalance
Carbohydrates and phosphates are primarily responsible for urolithiasis in the ovaries and bovines.
Results: If calculus is large in size, it can cause urinary obstruction (hydronephrosis, nephritis, cystitis).
The tiny calculus passes through the urethra without injury.
In the case of sheep and oxen, the smallest calculus does not pass due to the presence of sigmide flakes. Which can cause the urethra to rupture.
Urine lasts longer and if the bladder layer of the urine is injured or traumatized.
Reason: Urinary incontinence
Bacteria that enter through the urinary tract or hematogenous pathways.
Aneuria: No urine production.
Olegoria: Abnormal decrease in urine production
Polyuria: Excessive urine production
Proteinuria: High levels of protein in the urine.
Cystitis can be severe or chronic.
Acute cystitis: Moderate hyperemia and edema. There is a layer of hard caterpillar excretion on the surface .In this case the urine will be cloudy.
Microscopic Appearance: Degeneration, Epithelial Disruption and Neutrophil Infiltration
This is the presence of RBCs in the urine due to injury to any part of the urethra.
Causes: Any urinary tract disease such as pyelonephritis, cystitis, nephritis etc.
Trauma to the urinary tract
The presence of stones or calculus
Chemicals such as turpentine oil, carboxylic acid
Parasites such as Dactofyma renal
If there is bleeding before urination, it means an injury or infection in the urethra.
But if there is bleeding after urination, it means that the urethra is affected.
If we put urine in the test tube and let it stand for a few minutes, the RBCs will heal.
Hemoglobinuria; It has the presence of hemoglobin in the urine as well as no or less RBCS.
Causes: Blood parasites such as babesiosis, trypanosomiasis.
Poison (feed or chemical)
What is the difference between hemorrhoids and hemoglobia?