Need and use of salts in animals
Dr. Omar Hayat Gondal, Assistant Professor, Rafah Veterinary College, Lahore
Balanced use of salts is just as important for human beings as it is for animals. Everyone involved in animal husbandry is now aware of the importance of salts in animals. But access to complete information is still not possible. Therefore, their use is still very limited. Balanced use of salt is key to improving animal health and productivity.
Salts not only improve the taste of animal food. On the contrary, they help in eliminating various digestive disorders and increase the appetite of animals by increasing their appetite. In addition, increase in milk and meat production is also ensured. Different salts and minerals are useful and necessary for different purposes in animals.
٭ Phosphorus, copper, zinc, manganese and selenium for fertility
- Copper, zinc, manganese and selenium for fetal growth
- Magnesium, potassium, zinc and cobalt, for appetite
لئے Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Zinc for milk production
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and copper for bone growth
Phosphorus, Sulfur, Zinc and Selenium to strengthen muscles
- Magnesium, phosphorus and copper for the brain and nervous system
- Zinc, copper and manganese for skin and foot health
The list of chronic diseases caused by salt deficiency and its effects on production is very long. These problems include not only various harmful diseases such as measles, mumps, and reproductive problems.
One of the major causes of salt deficiency is unbalanced use of fertilizers in the soil. Our farmers use only nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers on their crops. The first of these ie nitrogen fertilizer is used more. While crops and plants need about twenty different elements. Most of which are also necessary for animals.
- But due to the reduction in the use of natural fertilizers, they can not be incorporated into the soil, so not only are they declining in the soil day by day. Are getting worse. And animal production is also steadily declining. To overcome this shortfall it is necessary to provide the animals with salts according to their needs or to add them to the fertilizers. Since the use of these salts in animals provides easier and more immediate results, the same method is generally followed. But one of the major drawbacks of this method is that the same formulas are usually available in the market. They are out of reach of ordinary cattle breeders, so they are rarely used.
Adding salt to the diet of salt-deficient animals produces immediate positive results on the production of these animals and provides astonishing results to the owner. If it goes, the cost-to-profit ratio may exceed 1: 200. But even under normal circumstances, in most animals this ratio is at least 1:20. That is, by using salts you can earn a profit of Rs. 20 by spending an extra rupee. Including the increased profits due to improvement, the salinity benefit is multiplied many times over.
Salt deficiency usually leads to chronic and latent diseases in animals. And its disadvantages appear gradually, so most cattle breeders do not care. Even further breeding of the animal becomes completely unprofitable. Even if an immediate problem arises, most veterinarians pay close attention to the treatment of the animal, even if they are treated regularly. Providing dietary salts not only protects against diseases but also dramatically increases their production (milk, meat and childbirth).
One of the reasons for the declining trend in salt use is the lack of a regional map of salt deficiency, meaning that most veterinarians and farmers do not have information on which salt deficiency or excess is found in which areas. This is possible only if the animals are given salts according to their need, neither less nor more. The saline mixtures given to animals in our country are not specific to any particular type of animal. The same prescription is usually given to different types of animals. The nutritional requirements of different species vary according to age, weight, purpose of breeding, type and quantity of produce, and functional condition of the animal. For example, lactating and dry cows. The salinity requirements of buffalo cannot be equal or the same, nor should the proportion of salts in them be the same. Similarly, their nutritional needs vary in different stages of production. Similarly, different types of animals such as cows and buffaloes,
- The requirements for goats, camels, etc. will not be the same. But in our country, the same type of mixture is often used in different animals, which is available in different government agencies. As a result, there is an increase in the use of salts. One of the disadvantages of this is that the use of unnecessary elements or salts in these additives imposes additional financial burden on the owner. Not used as food regularly but limited to the treatment of most diseases. Generally, salts available in the market contain essential and non-essential salts. As a result, these salty compounds are beyond the purchasing power of small farmers as food. On the other hand, it also has negative effects on animal health and productivity. If saline mixtures are formulated for different species of animals according to their productivity and specific life span, the problem of salt deficiency can be overcome to a great extent. And their productivity. Costs can also be made available to the average farmer.
- We have not yet paid due attention to animal nutrition issues as research priorities are not determined keeping in view the issues of farmers. Therefore, the research done in our research institutes has very little to do with the real problems. Even if there is such research, there is no proper system to convey the results to the farmers. If prepared, not only can low salt deficiency be overcome collectively, but also for farmers and veterinarians, their use will be much easier and less costly.
- It is gratifying that various governmental and non-governmental organizations are now realizing the importance of salts in animals. However, more research and attention is needed on their balanced use, so that better results of these efforts can be achieved, and cattle breeders can get maximum benefit, and better and balanced animal feed can be prepared. And their interest in raising animals remained.
- سب The biggest obstacle we have in this regard is the lack of problem oriented and applied research related to the problems. It can be ascertained which salts are deficient in a particular area. Then in the light of this information suitable saline mixtures can be prepared for each region. We still have such regional salt maps ) Not yet ready. And if developed, they are out of reach of government veterinary officers. And the absence or unavailability of this information is the biggest hurdle in providing balanced saline mixtures to animals. Unless such saline maps are developed under the supervision of scientists from research institutes and agricultural universities It is not possible or easy to prepare. If this information becomes available then saline mixtures can be formulated for different types of animals and according to specific regional needs keeping in view the regional nutritional issues. The shortcomings could be filled.
- In our country, regular use of salt in animal feed is very rare. Even common salt, which is abundant and very cheap in our country, is not very common. In rural areas the work of breeding animals is usually scattered rather than combined, and small herdsmen have a small number of animals per family, so access to modern technology is not easy. In addition, animals are mostly grazed in fields or pastures and the use of salts in pastures is not easy. Apart from grazing, animal food is generally not given much attention.
- Research Priorities:
- Research on the use of salts is essential for the preparation of locally balanced saline mixtures for animals, to help provide a balanced diet for animals. The following recommendations are made in this regard.
- The work of preparation of maps of regional salinity reduction should be started immediately.
- Until regional salt maps are developed, in order to use the available information, it is important to review past research by universities and research institutes to see how effective it is and how future research should be conducted. So that useful results can be obtained from these investigations.
- At the same time, it is important that the diseases caused by malnutrition in different parts of the country be surveyed as soon as possible. The work will also provide guidance for resolving regional issues.
- A special campaign should be launched to make the cattle breeders aware of the importance of salt and to make arrangements for disseminating the results of research on salt use to the cattle breeders.
- In order to prepare a perfectly balanced diet for animals, it is also important to analyze the mineral content of the ingredients used to present the results.
Armor should be published for the benefit of gentlemen to assess the salinity or deficiency in the diet. We do not yet have the results of a complete analysis of the ingredients, nor for livestock farmers. There is a facility.
It is gratifying that the need is now being felt at the government level to focus on the preparation of these maps through research in public and private universities and to emphasize the use of salts in various development projects. Is. It is to be hoped that in the next few years serious efforts will be made to develop such maps through research. Using these will help in overcoming these problems and increase the productive capacity of animals. If such efforts prove fruitful, then a significant increase in animal production will be assured,
Keeping in view the specific needs of salts, work has now been started in the Department of Nutrition of Rafah Veterinary College on such additives, and separate formulas are being developed for different milk and meat animals according to their needs and they are given to animals.
The tests are being carried out in the diet to test their usefulness through research. After these experiments, these compounds will be available in the market for cattle breeders. Rather, specific compounds will be formulated for the animals grazing in the pastures keeping in view their nutritional requirements. Lockers can be made. Of course, they will cost less than imported breeds,
and will be easy for cattle breeders to use. Can be easily used in animals kept in zoos and significant results can be obtained on their breeding. In this way, they will also help in the breeding of wildlife and all kinds of animals. In this regard, the views of readers and experts will be awaited, so that this effort can be put into practice in the best possible way.